Basis of the proposal
Formabiap bases its educational proposal as an alternative educational model that seeks to respond to the political and social needs and demands of the Amazonian indigenous movement. Incorporating their wisdoms and practices as well as the elements of science and technology.
The revaluation of the indigenous cultural heritage
In a society such as Peru, historically characterized by exclusion and discrimination towards indigenous or native peoples and their languages and knowledge, Formabiap marks a milestone in national education and in the visibility of indigenous peoples as subjects of law. Throughout these years, the respectful treatment of indigenous knowledge and languages has been translated into national educational policies and bases for the cultural affirmation of the Amazonian peoples and for the development of an intercultural dialogue on an equal footing.
The educational proposal focused on revaluing the cultural heritage of indigenous or native peoples. From this perspective, the training of the indigenous student must be developed through two complementary processes: the one offered by the processes of transmission and dissemination of the cultural heritage of their people (until then ignored by the school) and the one that could provide a school education critical and respectful of cultural and linguistic diversity (Trapnell, 2009: 17).
The valuation of indigenous cultural heritage in educational processes has motivated, from initial teacher training in IBE and basic IBE education, the approach, research and documentation of languages, and of the cultural knowledge and practices of the Amazonian peoples . Generated strategies to recover ancestral knowledge and practices, enhancing the self-esteem of students, residents and connoisseurs by recognizing them as depositories of knowledge, knowledge and valuable practices for their people and humanity.
The territory as a dynamic axis of the curricular proposal
The pedagogical proposal includes the unitary vision of indigenous or native peoples on the relationship between nature and society. We conceive the territory as an indissoluble unit where the human being, nature and the spiritual world are interrelated, being at the same time the place of the ancestors, of the mothers or protective beings of the animal and vegetable world and of the space in which they are they inspire and recreate their way of life, their worldview and ancestral knowledge.
The graduate of initial teacher training at EIB "claims the territory of his people as an ancestral legacy, base and condition for the development of his own socio-ecological process" (LC Formabiap, 1997: 34). For this reason, from its perspective of teacher training, the Program offers future teachers elements that will allow them to position themselves as actors that, on the one hand, will promote the awareness of children and residents about the current situation in their territory, and, on the other, its responsible management.
The development of learning from the social and productive activities of the community and the socio-cultural and ecological environment
Work in primary education, and later in initial education, is conceived from the social and productive activities that are developed in the communities (agriculture, hunting, fishing, gathering, the weaving of cotton and fiber and the manufacture of instruments ), because they offer the social framework where boys and girls acquire their knowledge and values.
This makes it possible to approach training from the ways in which children and young people learn in their daily lives and vindicates the ways of learning of indigenous or native peoples.
Consistent with this perspective, the curricular guidelines for primary and initial IBE education in the Amazon have been based on the social and productive activities of indigenous peoples.
In the same way, planning has been promoted for educational projects based on the communal calendar in order to promote the dialogue of knowledge from an intercultural perspective.
Initial teacher training in Intercultural Bilingual Education
Intercultural Bilingual Primary Education
The training of future teachers of the spatiality of Intercultural Bilingual Primary Education seeks to provide them with the tools that allow them to develop a comprehensive education for the boys and girls of their peoples, incorporating ancestral knowledge, traditions, spiritual and social moral values, as well as knowledge of other cultures and science, without the detriment of their own cultural and linguistic vision.
We currently serve 78 students from the Kichwa and Kukama-Kukamiria peoples, training teachers in the specialty of Intercultural Bilingual Primary Education (EIB).
Our strategies and innovations:
The inclusion of non-contact cycles
Treatment of languages
Strengthening of political training
Incorporation of indigenous wise men
Research, inquiry and recovery of knowledge
In Development of integrative productive projects
Development of inclusive productive projects
Mentoring from an intercultural perspective
Initial Intercultural Bilingual Education
The Formabiap proposal, contrary to the prevailing vision on initial education, seeks to maintain the bond of the indigenous child with his family during his early years.
For this reason, our proposal is aimed at developing the educational processes of children under 5 years of age in close relationship with the mother and the family environment, in homes and in different spaces of the community, leaving the classroom for very specific aspects.
To comply with this orientation, it was established as the first requirement that indigenous applicants to be teachers in the specialty of initial education should be mothers of families, in order to ensure and strengthen the role of women and the family in the transmission of wisdom , the values and knowledge of the parenting practices of their cultural environment.
Another central aspect of the professional training of the teachers refers to the deepening of the knowledge of the cultural heritage of the indigenous people to which each student belongs. For this reason, the Formabiap study plan includes modules related to different social and productive activities that are carried out during the five years of training. During the development of each module, the students not only talk about the activities, but also execute them and reflect on the set of knowledge that they must handle to put them into practice. In addition, they identify the notions and skills that children develop as they learn how to do them.
Similarly, unlike other teacher training programs that only address the contributions that psychology provides in terms of personal development and learning, the teacher training curriculum in Formabiap's initial specialty pays special attention to the how each indigenous people addresses both aspects that are complemented by the contributions of psychology.
Between 1999 and 2003 Formabiap trained indigenous youth as Promotoras de Educación Inicial, in the Central Jungle. Based on this experience, between 2005 and 2009 Formabiap developed initial teacher training in the specialty of initial education with a group of mothers from the Kukama-kukamiria and Tikuna peoples. This proposal was developed considering the worldview, the cultural practices of each people, the natural environment and their relationship with the spiritual beings and guardians of the forest, with the different social actors, privileging the wisdom and experience of the grandmothers, mothers and fathers of family in raising and caring for children, in culturally planned spaces and moments for the stimulation and development of children's learning.
Subsequently, the experience of Formabiap in the implementation of Vocational Training in Initial Education EIB developed from 2015 to 2019, was aimed at teachers without a professional pedagogical degree and community educational promoters of Initial Education in bilingual Amazonian environments. The Formabiap developed this process within the framework of the agreement No. 531-2014-MINEDU of Inter-institutional Cooperation between the Ministry of Education and the Higher Institute of Public Education "Loreto".
The participants were 30 teachers from the Kichwa people of the Napo and Torres Causana districts of the Maynas province, who were prepared to develop pedagogical processes within the framework of the socio-productive activities of the communities, turning them into meaningful and useful learning spaces for the students. boys and girls, where the wisdom of grandparents and grandmothers is harnessed, making the school an institution that offers an education for life. Likewise, the work carried out in initial educational institutions must be consistent with the upbringing guidelines of the Kichwa people, a process that required working in close coordination with the families; being the parents and the educational authorities who were part of the educational process of the teachers contributing to the EIB management.
It is important to highlight that during the execution of the Program, 2,437 Kichwa boys and girls aged 3, 4 and 5 years from 27 educational institutions of initial education were attended. Currently, the challenge for 14 teachers is to revitalize the Kichwa language as a heritage language in their communities and for another 16 to teach Kichwa as their mother tongue to strengthen and develop it through its use in school and in all socialization spaces.
Continuous training in the specialty of bilingual intercultural primary education.
In addition to developing initial teacher training programs, Formabiap implemented continuous training programs under different modalities:
- The professionalization programs, which were developed between 1993 - 2003 in three decentralized headquarters: Nieva (Condorcanqui, Amazonas), San Lorenzo (Datem del Marañón, Loreto) and Satipo (Junín).
- As executing entity of the training programs offered by the Ministry of Education (Minedu) between the years 1998 - 2003
Communities and schools for well-being - CEBES
In the line of continuous training, the Program promoted the development of Communities and Schools for Well-being - CEBES.
The Cebes constitute an effort made by Formabiap to link the school and the community with the aim that, together, they build a shared vision for the “full satisfaction of material and spiritual needs within the framework of worldviews and sociocultural realities” (Medina, 201021).
The Cebes are both an internal articulation effort between the school and the community, as well as external, insofar as the proposal includes the coordination of networks between various schools and communities organized with this vision. Work began on this initiative in 2008 with the support technical and financial management of the Danish organization Axis - CISU. It was developed in three phases, of three years each, which were called: the initiation phase, the consolidation phase and an exit phase. In the latter it was hoped to lay the foundations for their self-sustainability, when the communities and teachers give continuity to the work in the communities and schools and, the Formabiap incorporates the learning and strategies to the process of training new teachers in the specialty of Intercultural Bilingual Education .
In this project, 14 communities from the Kichwa peoples of Alto Napo, Tikuna of the Lower Amazon and Kukama Kukamiria of Lower Marañón participated in the first two phases. In phase three, eight communities from the last two towns mentioned.
CEBES is proposed as a strategy for the development of proposals for Bilingual Intercultural Education as a right for children from Amazonian indigenous communities to have a relevant, timely and quality education. At the same time, proposing the conception of a school as part of the community and of a community that assumes the management of the school. In this way, a community school and an educating community are conceived.
For the development of this project, the general objective was that the Amazonian indigenous peoples should exercise their right to Intercultural Bilingual Education, guaranteed in the Political Constitution of Peru and other current regulations.
To achieve this objective, actions were proposed in three areas:
- The development of the educational capacities of teachers, UGEL specialists and the Formabiap team of trainers.
- Work with organized communities to implement Community Educational Life Projects.
- Political advocacy for the implementation of IBE.
As relevant achievements of the project implementation, the following have been identified:
- Empowerment of the communities to demand their right to IBE for the boys and girls of the communities, as part of the educational process in which everyone must intervene.
- Greater participation of educational agents in the development of school work.
- The recognition of the legal norms in force for the implementation of the EIB as a state policy.
- Teachers' permanence in the communities and a higher rate of attendance and fulfillment of their teaching activities.
- Regular attendance of girls and boys at school.
- Affirmation of the indigenous identity of community members and, based on it, the assumption of commitments and duties to develop the practice of their own cultural manifestations.
Between the years 2009 - 2014, the Program worked a similar modality to that of Cebes in communities of the Achuar, Kichwa and Urarina peoples on the Corrientes River with the support of Ibis - Denmark. This experience served to extend the Bilingual Intercultural Education proposal to one of the areas most affected by oil exploitation in the Loreto region.